Ancient Ethnography and Geography

The Land of the Elephant Kings: Space, Territory, and Ideology in the Seleucid Empire
Kosmin, Paul J. 2014. The Land of the Elephant Kings: Space, Territory, and Ideology in the Seleucid Empire. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 448. Publisher's VersionAbstract

The Seleucid Empire (311–64 BCE) was unlike anything the ancient Mediterranean and Near Eastern worlds had seen. Stretching from present-day Bulgaria to Tajikistan—the bulk of Alexander the Great’s Asian conquests—the kingdom encompassed a territory of remarkable ethnic, religious, and linguistic diversity; yet it did not include Macedonia, the ancestral homeland of the dynasty. The Land of the Elephant Kings investigates how the Seleucid kings, ruling over lands to which they had no historic claim, attempted to transform this territory into a coherent and meaningful space.

Based on recent archaeological evidence and ancient primary sources, Paul J. Kosmin’s multidisciplinary approach treats the Seleucid Empire not as a mosaic of regions but as a land unified in imperial ideology and articulated by spatial practices. Kosmin uncovers how Seleucid geographers and ethnographers worked to naturalize the kingdom’s borders with India and Central Asia in ways that shaped Roman and later medieval understandings of “the East.” In the West, Seleucid rulers turned their backs on Macedonia, shifting their sense of homeland to Syria. By mapping the Seleucid kings’ travels and studying the cities they founded—an ambitious colonial policy that has influenced the Near East to this day—Kosmin shows how the empire’s territorial identity was constructed on the ground. In the empire’s final century, with enemies pressing harder and central power disintegrating, we see that the very modes by which Seleucid territory had been formed determined the way in which it fell apart.

Kosmin, Paul J. 2013. “Alexander the Great and the Seleucids in Iran.” The Oxford Handbook of Ancient Iran, edited by Daniel Potts, 671–689. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 671–689.
Kosmin, Paul J. 2013. “Apologetic Ethnography: Megasthenes' Indica and the Seleucid Elephant.” Ancient Ethnography: New Approaches, edited by Eran Almagor and Joseph Skinner, 97–115. New York: Bloomsbury Academic, 97–115.
Kosmin, Paul J. 2013. “Seleucid Ethnography and Indigenous Kingship: The Babylonian Education of Antiochus I.” The World of Berossos, edited by Johannes Haubold, Giovanni Lanfranchi, Robert Rollinger, and John Steele, 193–206. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz, 193–206.
Romulus' Asylum: Roman Identities from the Age of Alexander to the Age of Hadrian
Dench, Emma. 2005. Romulus' Asylum: Roman Identities from the Age of Alexander to the Age of Hadrian. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Publisher's VersionAbstract

Modern treatments of Rome have projected in highly emotive terms the perceived problems, or the aspirations, of the present: 'race-mixture' has been blamed for the collapse of the Roman empire; more recently, Rome and Roman society have been depicted as 'multicultural'. Moving beyond these and beyond more traditional, juridical approaches to Roman identity, Emma Dench focuses on ancient modes of thinking about selves and relationships with other peoples, including descent-myths, history, and ethnographies. She explores the relative importance of sometimes closely interconnected categories of blood descent, language, culture and clothes, and territoriality. Rome's creation of a distinctive imperial shape is understood in the context of the broader ancient Mediterranean world within which the Romans self-consciously situated themselves, and whose modes of thought they appropriated and transformed.